thymol n : a colorless crystalline solid used in perfume or preserving biological specimens or in embalming or medically as a fungicide or antiseptic [syn: thyme camphor, thymic acid]
a monoterpene phenol
- Spanish: timol
Thymol is a monoterpene phenol derivative of cymene, C10H14OH, isomeric with carvacrol, found in oil of thyme, and extracted as a white crystalline substance of a pleasant aromatic odor and strong antiseptic properties. It is also called "hydroxy cymene".
The Bee Balms (Monarda fistulosa and Monarda didyma) are natural sources of thymol, a primary active ingredient in modern commercial mouthwash formulas. The Blackfeet Indians recognized this plant's strong antiseptic action, and used poultices of the plant for skin infections and minor wounds. A tea made from the plant was also used to treat mouth and throat infections caused by dental caries and gingivitis.
Thymol has been found to be useful in controlling varroa mites in bee colonies.A minor use is in bookbinding: before rebinding, books with mould damage can be sealed in bags with thymol crystals to kill fungal spores. It is also used as a preservative in halothane, an anaesthetic, and as an antiseptic in mouthwash.
Recent medical research on rats concludes that "Thyme extract had relaxing effects on organs possessing β2-receptors (uterus and trachea)."
In a 1994 report released by five top cigarette companies, thymol was listed as one of 599 additives to cigarettes. It is added to improve the flavor.
There is also evidence supporting the belief that thymol when applied two to three times daily, can eliminate certain kinds of fungal infections that affect finger and toe nails in humans. Regular application to the affected nail over periods approximating three months, has been shown to eliminate the affliction by effectively preventing further progress; by simply cutting the nail as one normally would, all infected material is eventually eliminated.
Thymol has GABAnergic activity, a mechanism of action similar to other depressants such as secobarbital, methaqualone and diazepam. It bears close similarity to the widely used aneasthetic propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol). Because it is less potent, thymol could potentially be abused like the more common depressants. Propofol is extremely dangerous because of its very steep dose-response curve and high potency. It is commonly abused among aneasthesiologists and nurses, many times causing death. Because of thymol's lowered potency and safer dose-response curve, it could feasibly be abused as a legal depressant. Because propofol is not scheduled, thymol is neither a controlled substance nor a controlled substance analogue in the US and the UK. Because of its widespread availability in food products, it is unlikely to ever come under control.
thymol in German: Thymol
thymol in Spanish: Timol
thymol in French: Thymol
thymol in Hebrew: תימול
thymol in Latvian: Timols
thymol in Hungarian: Timol
thymol in Dutch: Thymol
thymol in Japanese: チモール
thymol in Polish: Tymol
thymol in Portuguese: Timol
thymol in Russian: Тимол
thymol in Chinese: 百里酚